Wednesday, December 12, 2007

PE Research School

PROJECT EDEN RESEARCH SCHOOL


An association with James Cook University medical school and biomolecular and nutrition faculties in the Science Schools is planned for this scientific research programme.

Health Department Federal and State will be approached for funding liaising with for research outcomes and preventative health strategies in the tropics.

Scientifically monitored experimental testing of all variables is envisaged, through use of controls and groups in triple blind run-offs. ie. Patients and Controllers will not know which groups are control or experiment. One group is to be 100% organic fruitarian, two group 100% organic rawfoods including vegetables, three group 100% rawfoods non-organic, four group 95% rawfoods organic, five group 80% rawfoods mix organic and non, six group 50% rawfoods, seven group 35% rawfoods, eight group 10% rawfoods, nine group 100% cooked. Cooked food will be macrobiotic vegan for groups four to five. Lacto-vegetarian for groups six. Raw to lightly cooked fish included for group seven, medium white meats cooked included for group eight and mixed well done for group nine. Eventually each group will be sub-divided to trial sample each different cooked diet above.


Project Eden Research School

Research areas for further investigation:

Research Hypothesis of potential benefits for humanity:-
A. Immortality
I. Soma (chromosomes, lycosomes, ribosomes, etc) in cells regenerated by raw foods diet
II. Reduction of food intake increases longevity
III. Cooking food creates carcinogenic free radicals / reducing nutrients / denaturing reaction compounds
IV. Caramelisation of soma in cells due to accumulation of fat and sugar
V. Enzyme systems synergy research in digestive tract – enzyme stomach, total enzyme potential
VI. Effect of raw foods on degenerative diseases and immune system response
VII. Diabetes and sugar levels - enzyme replacement of insulin
VIII. Arthritis and effects of enterocyte enzymes
IX. Micro-nutrient effect on health and protective factors in plants - Sapody’s CaPNaK balance system
X. Millaird Reaction, N-nitrosamines, Oxysterols, PAH and HCA’s as mutogens and metabolic and carcinogenic implications
XI. Cardiovascular, strokes, hypertension and asthmatic effects of rawfoods

B. Purification and Happiness
I. Raw foods effect on reducing depression and other mental illnesses – ie. Paw Paw’s carpaine acting as a relaxant (Inglett 79)
II. Analysis of diet effects to see if reduction in violent behaviour both domestically and on all social levels – determine if diet transforms peoples behaviour by alteration in chemical hormonal balance in body affecting aggression areas of the brain..
III. Allowing of quicker digestion by raw foods effect on metabolism and total energy of a system organism
IV. Removal of heavy loading on body effects on digestive tract and endocrine system
V. Process system of detoxification of impurities on a rawfood diet built up by cooked and processed foods and chemicals including pollutants breathed in.


Analysis of Scientific Research
Scientific Research on vegan raw food diets and cooked food including meat eating and its effects on degenerative diseases.

Raw Logic

In June 2002 a Swedish scientific research team found 500 times above the UN safe limit for a carcinogen contained in an ordinary packet of chips. Does it matter? Do we care? Should we investigate it further or just ignore that shelf in the supermarket for a couple of weeks? Food for thought in the third millennium.

Lionel Raymond Murray’s book Raw Logic Panther, [2000] PO box 750 Woden ACT 2606.

Murray, an organic chemist, after a bout of cancer started to question his diet and the causes of disease. He read Raw Energy (Kenton, 86) which led to systematic research of the scientific evidence on diet and disease causation. Increasingly his research became a dissertation on for and against cooking food. The results of his extensive research are found in his book.

I have attempted merely to summarise the more relevant hard scientific research, theories and results of his findings below in five sections; which I feel more logically follows from his work (which he divides into four). I have not attempted to critique his book, which does show a degree of objectivity by revealing research not supporting his thesis, though there is a degree of bias towards his conclusions which is to be expected in a book for the public. Please note the highlighted in bold passages are disputed by Murray as being an incorrect interpretation of the scientific data, however in my correspondence with him he did not explain why so I leave it for you to make your own conclusions by purchasing his book. For those wanting a taste of hard scientific evidence to weigh up the merits of a raw food diet and to determine if there is a connection to disease, please read on.

1. Western culture and traditional societies diets –

Murray discusses the cultural history of cooking in Western civilisation and how it evolved to replace natural raw foods. In Nurition and Physical Degeneration, Price 1939 the diet of Western and traditional peoples were compared. Tribal people examined showed no western diseases in diets where:

  • ∑ Anti-oxidant vitamins much greater
  • ∑ Most subsisted mainly on plant foods, much rawfood and no processed foods.
  • ∑ Ca, P, Mg, Fe and fat-soluble vitamins were up to 50 times more than in the West


Leaf (73) and Gleeson (87) examined centenarians (people living over 100). There were 63 per 100,000 people in Azerbaijan and 3 per 100,000 in the USA. He concludes the diet of 70% plant matter containing mostly unprocessed food and 1800 calories intake per day on average of these old people was a deciding factor in longevity, along with extended community, exercise and clean air.
Trowell and Burkitt in 1981 showed aboriginal disease increased five times after adopting a Western diet.

2. Harm from cooking

McCarrison in 1920 put monkeys on a cooked food diet of mostly rice, most died within 15-70 days, those fed onions as well lasted longer.
Pottinger (83) in 1930s fed cooked and raw food to cats. The cooked food cats developed infections, long bones, inflammations, allergies, abortions, etc which were not observed with the raw food cats.

Colorectal Cancer

Muscat and Wynder in 1994 found no association between well and medium cooked meat and this cancer. But Murray states polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines (HCA) form on the cooking of meat at high temperatures and are mutogenic, that is permanently change genetic material known to be carcinogenic. Probst-Hensch (97) found a 2.2 statistical correlation (referred to herein as 'ratio' - this is not a multiple ratio more likely of an event but a statistical correlation based on the odds ratio of the septile of the event http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odds_ratio) in carcenogenic adenomas in those eating well done meat. Gerhardsson de Verdier (91) found meat cooked at higher temperatures showed correlations of 2.8 in colon and 6.0 in rectal cancers. Parnaud and Corpet (97) reviewed many studies including those that found more rats got cancer on vegetables than meat, but low fat and low protein diets gave less cancer. However 22 of 29 Case Controlled studies concluded meat was a dietary risk factor. Voskuil (97) proposed more research into DNA mutations. Kampman (99) found DNA carcinogen metabolising genes and HCA intake were not associated in colon cancer. The Working Group UK department of Health 1998 stated red processed meat increases colorectal cancer.

Breast Cancer

HCAs are 3.34 odds ratio giving a strong association to breast cancer; De Stefani 97. But Ambrosone (98) disagreed, Snyderwine (98) said it was unknown if HCA has an effect. But Zheng in ‘98 found a 4.62 ratio more incidences in well done and increased meat consumption.

Lung Cancer

Denco-Pellegrini (96) found red meat, beef, fried meat and saturated fat significantly increase risk.

Stomach Cancer

Ward (97) found high red meat cooking doneness increased cancer.


General

Byrne (98) has tried to standardise HCA results. The 98 UK Department of Health Report said 90g cooked meat recommended, over 140g cooked weight is dangerous - Australians consume 230g (uncooked weight) per day on average. They recommended increased fruit and vegetable consumption to five servings per day.



3. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF COOKING

Skurikhin (85) found 6-12% loss of protein, fat and carbohydrate occurs on cooking and 10-60% loss of micronutrients ie. vitamins and minerals (soluble). Murray charts this on page 45 and 53.

Fats

Heating fats gave rise to oxidation causing polymers and peroxides which are toxic; Lang 70.

Proteins

High temperature cooking creates HCAs that are toxic and carcinogenic, particularly in animal protein. Heat destroys the biological activity and the enzymes digestive potential by breaking the folding that allows it to link to molecules substrates and react with them – denaturation; Wang 95. Tryplophan at high temperatures degrades to carboline which has given cancer to mice; Freidman 88 and LAL lysinalinine synthetic found in processed protein food (pre-cooked breakfast cereals) is biologically active and caused kidney damage to rats but was not mutagenic; Pfaender 83. However Friedman (92) said the effects of LAL must be overcome.

Carbohydrates

Fenech 93 found cooking gave rise to toxic furfural and glyoxal which were genotoxic, formed by pyrolysis from sugars and starch – volatiles from caramelised products.
MICRONUTRIENTS

Vitamins

Cooking in water dissolves vitamin C and B and causes degradation of 10-100% of vitamins – on average 65%; Murray p.53 examines and charts 9 research papers.

Minerals

They are unaffected by cooking, but some are soluble so leached out on boiling.

Plant Protection Factors

These anti-cancer agents in plant foods, such as isothiocyanates, oleic acid (olive oil) and B carotene are degraded significantly by cooking; Murray p.55.

Maillard Reaction

Browning on cooking causes a decrease in amino acid survival in particular lysine. Reaction compounds form that decrease digestibility, cause protein damage and nutrient loss. Clastogenicity arose causing chromosome breaks in ovary cells of hamsters; McGregor 89. Kim (91) found substances that combine with active oxygen in the reaction mixture added to heated glucose and amino acids reduced mutogenicity. Friedman (91) suggested anti-oxidants to reduce harmful reaction compounds and toxins. Wedzicha (91) said sulphites can inhibit Maillard reaction but their reaction products may be toxic. Yen in 1992 connected heating to increased mutagenic activity in some products but decreased in others. Fujimoto in 1995 discovered hydroperoxides (a Maillard byproduct) and suggested they may cause pathogenesis and lesions in hyperglycemia.

However Chuyen in 1998 said the Maillard reaction maybe beneficial, increasing anti-oxidants, reducing mutagens, and benefiting protein complexes.

Murray concludes mixing and cooking foods to the point of browning them creates many reaction products which are potentially harmful and toxic.

Ascorbate Browning

Sodium ascorbate added to food ie. baked breads, causes a browning which increases toxic mutagens. Protein degradation caused growth inhibition in mice; Friedman 87.

N-nitrosamines

These were shown to be carcinogenic in smoked, pickled, preserved dried by gas and packaged in rubber food products; Tricker 91.

Heterocyclic Amines (HCA)

HCA formation has been linked to greater length and temperature of cooking meat; Knize 94. Nitrogen rich foods heated to high temperature form HCAs from amino acids and creatine. HCAs have to be modified by enzymes before they react with nucleic acids so becoming carcinogenic mutagens. Sinha 1994, found that high temperature cooking of meat induced the enzyme that activates the HCA making it mutogenic. Stavric in 1994 rejected animal studies saying 0.5-3 million times the level of HCA was used in the experiments compared to human levels. Layton (95) said HCA and cancer risk to humans was insignificant. Gooderham (97) showed the major metabolic pathway of HCA was by means of the enzyme CYP1A2. A mutational fingerprint was induced by the HCA in rats.

Pence (98) found rats had high colon cancer rates with high HCA intake, but only in combination with a low fat diet - high fat reduced tumours. Oguri (98) found anti-oxidants such as green tea. flavonoids, and caffeic acid, reduce levels of HCA in cooking. Davies (95) found amine beef to assist absorption of HCAs causing mutagenic activity in human livers. Augustsson (99) found HCA intakes of colon and rectal cancer patients lower than controls. [This anomaly may be explained I believe on the basis that the study did not consider if the patients may have altered their diet removing HCA toxic foods to reduce risks after getting cancer]. Forman (99) suggests cancer mutations do not match those produced by HCA. However he says enzymes CYP1A2 and NAT2 activate HCA which depending on the metabolic states of individuals may cause colorectal cancer. Felton (99) researched microwaving and reported if done before frying mutagenic activity was reduced up to 95% and HCAs decreased up to nine fold.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)

These nasties are created by charcoal and woodfires in smoke. Chocolate, bread and pizzas also contain PAHs. Lijinsky associated them with cancer in 1991. Guillen in 1997 referred to an ‘induced enzyme system’ which biotransforms PAH to an active form and varies in effect depending on each individual’s induced enzyme system. So making the effects of PAH toxicity depend on the individual.

Oxysterols

These form when cholesterol reacts with oxygen on increasing heat. Fioriti (67) found auto-oxidation products on heating cholesterol. Dairy food and butter were high in oxysterols; Nielson 96. Hubbard (89) connected this to artherosclerosis, but Brown (99) disagreed. Has been linked to eye cataracts, cardiovascular degeneration and carcinogenisis; Girao 98, Kendler 97, Smith 89. But Woods (98) said not genotoxic.

Rabbits on 1% oxidised cholesterol had a 64% increase of cholesterol in their aortas. Lipoproteins atherogenicity is affected by oxysterols; Vine 98.

Effect on behaviour

Beta endorphin levels rise after eating acting as a pain reducer; Matsumura 82. Food appears to affect cognitive performance; Bellisle 98. Hyperactive behaviour was connected to food in particular salicylate allergies; Stewart 87. Reaction products could affect compulsive behaviour. Dressler in 1990 linked emotional behaviour such as violence to an imbalance in neuro-transmitters which are controlled by enzymes in food chemicals. Murray suggests that a 10% nutrient loss combined with toxic degradation products on cooking could cause behavioural changes.

Wild Animals

1.5% of animals at San Diego Zoo died of neo-plasms (cancer) whereas 16% of humans do; Effron 77. Leader in 1975 states arthritis is lower in animals and western degenerative diseases are rare, however he gives no definite research. The lack of degenerative disease could therefore be due to reduced life span due to natural selection in the wild not present in human society, although Murray strongly refutes this. Evidence of human life spans increasing dramatically over the course of civilization suggests that before this when life expectancy was much lower due to natural selection, there may have been little degenerative diseases, because the body had biologically evolved not to degenerate until the age it was expected to die. Therefore disease could be more related to genetic ageing of cells than diet. Wild animals therefore would not show much degenerative diseases because they are living on average the length of life expected before ageing would set in as dictated by natural selection.

Murray on commenting to me on this point said that wild animals do get degenerative diseases before they reach their expected life span when fed a cooked artificial diet. He therefore rather simplistically says life expectancy is 'a red herring' in causing degenerative disease.

4. PREVENTION OF DISEASE

Polynesian foods have been found to be anti-mutagenic for their unprocessed fruit and vegetable content; Botting 1999.

CANCER

Digestive Tract Cancer

20-80% reduction occurred in high fruit diet patients; Winn 95. Carotenes rich in vitamin A had a significant protective effect; Franco 89. Cabbage also for oesophageal cancer; Herbert 93. In general fruit and vegetables protected smokers from laryngeal cancer; Riboli 96.

Nair in 1994 found vegetarians had less gastro-intestinal cancer. Tomatoes raw offer protection; Franceschi 94. Raw vegetables rich in vitamin C and carotene significantly reduce stomach cancer; Boeing 91. Murray confirms this by referring to six other studies all in different countries p.82. Diversity of diet especially in fruit and vegetables reduces stomach cancer. Colon cancer risk consistently can be protected from by vegetables like salads (0.29 odds reduction) and cuciferous vegetables; Young 88. Giovannucci (94) found no association between fibre and vegetable intake and colon cancer, but 3.57 ratio increase for red meat eaters over 5 helpings per week to those eating less than one per month. However both Lee (89) and Thun (92) disagreed showing 0.5 protective effect by cruciferous vegetables. Steinmetz and Potter (93) found eggs increased colon cancer risk in females. The odds ratio for the highest septile of consumption being 6.3! Onions and legumes for women reduced it by 0.5, raw fruit and cabbage by 0.75, garlic 0.68. Kampman (95) found vegetables gave 0.4 reduction. Vegetable fibre gave 0.5 protection and inverse relationship to fruit and vegetable consumption and cancer risk; Ghadirian 97.

Breast Cancer

Walker (95) linked consumption of low energy diets with low mono-unsaturated fats and high fibre fruit and vegetable intake and unprotected sex of African women to a cancer rate of 1 in 15,000 compared to in the US of 1 in 8. Murray lists a table of 6 reports five of which show raw food in particular carotene as offering a 40-60% protection p.84.

Pancreatic Cancer

Gold (85) and Bueno (91) show raw vegetables and fruit significantly reduce risk in case controlled studies (CC). Cuciferous cooked vegetables also protected. Ghadirian (91) found egg, milk and meat increased risk. Lyon found in ‘93 women only were protected by vegetable fibre 0.28. Howe in ’96 say to date results are inconclusive.

Prostate Cancer

Soy products decrease cancer risk according to Kennedy (95). Weisburger (98) found tomatoes acted as lycopene anti-oxidants especially if cooked lightly in oil. Tea had similar effects. Coghlan (99) found boiling softens cells in carrots, allowing five times better absorption of carotenoids which protects against disease, however the protective effect of the carotene is partially destroyed by cooking.

Lung Cancer

Raw vegetables gave significant protection in a CC study in Japan of ex-smokers; Goa 93. Candelora (92) found carotene gave 0.3 risk reduction. Risk halved by high vegetable consumers in an Ohio prospective study (PS); Steinmetz 93. Banana, pumpkin, onions were great protectors in Indian CC; Sankaranarayanan 94. Green vegetables and carrots not consumed at all by smokers increased risk by three times; Pisani 96.

Other Cancers

Vulvar cancer investigated by Parazzini (95) was inversely related to the consumption of green vegetables and carrots. Thyroid cancer showed protection 0.6 odds ratio for raw fruit and vegetables in particular greens, carrots, citrus; Franceschi 91. Renal cancer was protected from by apples and citrus fruit; Lindblad 97.

General Results

0.2-0.5 protection from cancer by consuming fruit and vegetables; Tavani 95. In a 13.8 year study of 2,000 people 0.5 protection factor was found for fruit in Wales; Hertog 96. On a large range of cancers a statistically significant effect was found for high fruit and vegetable consumption and lower cancer rates, it was suggested a public health education programme was necessary; Block 92. The UK Department of Health 98 working group report recommended increasing fruit and vegetable intake to reduce cancer risk.

Heart Disease

11,000 people in 12 year study of vegetarians showed ischaemic heart disease significantly lower; Burr and Butland 98. Verlangieri (85) in a study of US mortality rates confirmed this as did Singh (92) in a CC where 400g of fruit and vegetables was given prior to every meal.
Visioli (94) revealed olive oil decreased risk by inhibiting lipoprotein oxidation and Rimm (96) exposed cereal dietary fibre as most beneficial, more than fruit and vegetable fibre.
Parodi (97) found folic acid from fruit and vegetables (F&V) depressed plasma homocysteine
levels in cholesterol and fats suggesting low heart disease in the rich French diet due to F&V consumption being high.

Stroke

Ness (97) found strong protection in a review of 45 studies of F&V intake and strokes. Keli (96) found anti-oxidants and flavinoids (particularly in black tea) and beta carotene gave strong protection, but not vitamins E and C.

Hypertension

Rouse in 1984 researched vegetarians and found lower blood pressure. Raw food had same effect; Douglass 85.

Diabetes

7th Day Adventists taken over 21 years of 26,000 found 50% less diabetes in vegetarians. Cerutti (87) found diets rich in vegetable fibre lowered insulin use but may effect absorption of minor elements.

Appendicitis

Green vegetables and tomatoes may protect; Barker 86.

Arthritis

Coconut oil is used for rheumatic pain relief in Pacific Islands; Cambie and Ash 94.
Fasting improves condition and food allergies could worsen it; Buchanan 91. Kjeldsen-Kragh (91) showed fasting and a lacto-vegetarian diet significantly improved patients over 12 months. In 1994 he checked after 2 years and found still significant benefit, but linked it to a psychological belief in the patients in alternative medicine. Seignalet (92) showed on a raw diet 36 out of 46 patients significantly benefited with 19 in complete remission.

Asthma

Burney (87) connected salt and asthma mortality, confirmed by Medici (93). Soutar (97) decreased vitamin C and manganese intakes increased risk by 5 times concluding diets low in anti-oxidants gave rise to increasing Western asthma rates.

Conclusion

50% lower risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases by consuming five or more servings of F&V daily; Ames 98.



5. BIOLOGICAL BENEFITS of RAW FOODS

Protective Factors in Plants

Stienmetz and Potter (91) found dietary fibre binds toxins and plant substances can induce new enzymes that detox. He suggested humans’ metabolism is adapted to high plant intake and cancer may result from lack of these substances essential for metabolism.

Cruciferous vegetables induce enzymes that detoxify carcinogens; Prochaska 92. Brassinin from cabbage inhibited mouse lesions on the breast and skin and protects against the initiation and formation of cancer; Mehta 95. Dragsted (93) found antitumourigenic activity from F&V and tea and coffee, cereals, beans and oil which inhibited genotoxins in mice and rats by 55-100%, on average 55%, see Murray’s chart p.96. Fractionated urine from a plant based diet had isoflavonoids containing genistein at 30 times normal levels. These suppress vascular endothelial cells which are necessary for blood vessel growth of tumours.

Anti-oxidants are prolific in plant foods.

ENZYMES

They catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions.

They can break down molecules releasing chemical energy. They mediate processes in the cells transforming chemicals to living protoplasm. Raw foods keep enzymes active and intact with the result that the enzymes can be used in digesting food once consumed and therefore reduces the amount of energy required to digest.

Enzymes are proteins made up of amino acids that are folded into shapes that attract by electrical charge substrates of other molecules. These substrates are held and a reaction takes place, the molecule is released and the enzyme reforms itself.

In a metabolic cycle several enzymes in succession breakup large molecules releasing energy. Usually sugars are broken down. Or in reverse an enzyme may build up (synthesis) a molecule such as glucose to glycogen in the liver.

1. Metabolic enzymes a) break down molecules to maintain body temperature, and to perform the physiological processes of work and motion in the organism; and b) synthesize large complex molecules.
2. Digestive enzymes break food molecules up; amalyses reduce carbohydrates to sugars; proteases turn protein to peptides and amino acids; lipases convert fats to glycerol. The pancreas produces these enzymes, but they can be produced elsewhere and are present in white blood cells called leucoytes.
3. Enzyme action is reversible A<=>B+C. Where A is the initial molecule and B and C are the products after enzyme action. IF B and C are not removed from the reaction site then they are converted back to A once the supply of A is reduced. Murray tries to explain this on page 99 not very effectively.

Raw foods keep their enzymes so reverse synthesis can occur in the digestive tract to breakdown food molecules. Animals use this process in fore stomachs (ruminants have three stomachs) which have no (endogenous) digestive enzymes and so rely on protozoa and plant enzymes (exogenous) to digest.

Heating enzymes more than 50-80 C destroys their electrical folding and so catalytic ability making them inactive proteins. Pasteurisation does this at 61 C; Dressler 90.


Disease and enzyme deficiency

If there is a malfunction in the enzyme system there is a partial shut down of energy to tissue. Rare genetic diseases may have a complete lack of particular enzymes eg. In Phenylketonuria (PKU), which can be treated by dietary manipulation providing that enzyme. If a digestive enzyme is deficient, supplying the digestive enzyme can rectify the malfunction; Nakamura 98. Enzymes affected by toxins produced similar symptoms to degenerative diseases ie. Krebs Cycle where acetate metabolises to citrate. Sodium fluoroacetate metabolises to fluorocitrate using the same enzyme but will not react with further enzymes in the chain so jamming the path; this enzyme operates in heart muscle so the chemical toxin can cause catastrophic results.

Dr E Howell in 1985 proposed that cooking destroys enzymes giving rise to degenerative disease by increasing pancreatic secretions needed to digest, causing stress to other tissues deprived of enzyme energy thereby ceasing normal function. The medical view is that exogenous enzymes are destroyed by gastric acid juice so are not necessary.

Howell pointed to enlarged pancreas in humans as opposed to raw food eating animals. Maladaption to the environment causes degenerative disease; Eaton 89.

Howell theorises that there is:-
1. A total enzyme potential = limit on total metabolic and digestive enzyme synthesis = duration of life. Vitality is in proportion to catabolic rate (wear and tear on organism) and this decides the life of the organism. Enzymes levels decrease in tissue over time; Univ Toronto.
RAW DIET = E in digestive system + E of raw plant > metabolic potential by supplying enzymes => average life span >
Animal tests show less calories means a longer life because less food to digest means less use of potential enzymes.

2. Enzyme stomach exists in our fore stomach (cardiac) which digests using food enzymes for 30-60 minutes. Then the stomachs enzymes pepsin commences to act and gastric acid inhibits the exogenous enzymes. Brook (85) stated the bolus of the stomach has a high pH initially to allow salivery amalese to digest ie. remains alkali. This 1/3 proximal stomach acts as a reservoir while the distal stomach churns and empties; Meyer 87 and Hendrix 80. The findus has few mixing waves to interact with gastric juices; Tortura 81. However, hydrochloric acid secreted by parietal cells exist in 25% of the proximal and 35% of distal; Hogben 74. Howell says the acid is not secreted for at least half an hour and that the bulk of the food in the bolus delays acid action, but there is no scientific data provided by Murray. Howell argues malt amylese an enzyme in barley survives the stomach therefore food enzymes can act regardless of the acid conditions in the intestine later. Enzymes in cereal, grain, and diary products were shown also to survive and Prochaska (94) suggests a disease enzyme theory similar to Howell. Lingual lipase is an enzyme protected by lipids’ substrates from acid; Fink 84.

3. Adaptive secretion says pancreas secretions adapt to diet, so less enzymes secreted in raw food diet and concentrations of individual enzymes vary depending on enzymes required. [Babkin (1904) found digestive enzymes secrete same concentrations, however 17 research papers since then have refuted Babkin; 800 times more amylase in hen to cat. Goldstein (27) , Abranson (35) and Monad (47) found enzymes systems adapt to conserve energy. Enzymes secrete at different concentrations depending on food intake; Bell 80.] According to adaptive seerology, reduction in cooked or processed fats and oils will reduce lipase in pancreatic juices so reducing enzyme demand on the pancreas. Lipase is unstable and not compensated by non-pancreatic lipase therefore more fat in a diet could cause digestive stress leading to disease; Layer 99.

PROOF

Eskimos eat raw meat and show no colon or breast cancer. How can they digest a diet of 30-40% fat with little plant fibre using only their own enzymes? Howell asserts it is the retained food enzymes in the raw meat that do the digesting. Murray did not consider that maybe they chew it more so increasing digestion. On further discussions with him he stated it was not relevant.

Raw milk is enzyme rich with at least 30 enzymes which digest fat, sugar and protein in milk, but pasteurisation destroys the enzymes; Fox 81. Lipase helps it become rancid in the stomach. Howell quotes Potter’s book of 1908 which used raw milk to cure diseases, then says raw diary was used in diets of people living 90-100 years.

Comparative organ weights show humans to have comparatively larger pancreas to wild animals.

Industrial society consumes nutritionally dense foods which increase enzyme secretions and so may give rise to increased western degenerative diseases. Confirmed by comparisons with traditional societies.

Research shows protective effects of V&F due to exogenous enzyme action in the metabolic process.

Long living communities consume low density unprocessed diet with 70% plant food and low calories.

Studies show vegetarians have less disease than omnivores.

Enzyme Synergy

Prochaska in 1994 came up with a theory of synergism that “food enzymes interact with enzymes in the digestive tract to maximise the release of thermodynamic energy”. Heat destroys food enzymes therefore no synergism less energy and thus abnormalities in the cellular metabolism and so disease. He states that food enzymes can survive gastric acids and act in the intestines ie. wheat bran has phytase that digests phytate in the intestine and yoghurt has galactosidase that digests lactose, and enzymes from raw seeds can inhibit intestinal enzymes. There has been no firm research though Murray later stated to me there had been and was noted in his bibliography.

Conclusion

A living organism is the co-ordinated aggregate of an enzyme system in which the input energy of food powers the enzyme mediated functions of the organism. Disease may be the outcome when:
– 1. Food enzymes are destroyed by heat requiring replacement by endogenous digestive enzymes which overstresses the metabolism.
∑ 2. Degradation and reaction products from heating require new enzymes to be produced by the body to digest causing stress.

Watterson (97) suggested enzymes reaction energy causes pressure which is transferred to clusters of water molecules giving rise to motion of the organism. Richards (91) looked at factors controlling folding of new proteins into the active configurations of enzymes so that enzymes might be synthetically manufactured in the laboratory to create bioactive forms for industry. However Murray says there has been little scientific interest or research recently on enzyme systems and disease.

Immune System

Kouchakoff (30) investigated the phenomena that food eating increased white corpuscles (leucocytes) in the blood – digestive leucocytosis (DL). Raw food showed no increase. Cooked an increase, manufactured an increase and a change in proportions. If raw and cooked were mixed there was no DL Cooking had to be at temperatures over 87-97 C. DL carry enzymes which provide back up enzymes to deal with cooked food. He believed that therefore DL was pathological rather than a physiological result of eating.

Gaisbauer (90) found rawfood acts as an immunostimulant by creating antibiotics and intestinal flora. Allergies caused by immunoglobulins were reduced by rawfoods in 8 days.



The Future


  • Most scientists are not as a priority, researching dietary intake and the connection to disease, because advances in biotechnology have been so great that these are being focused on to solve disease problems.
  • However, Pritiken’s diet and a general alternative health movement starting in the 70s has been supported by public interest, due to rising health problems associated with processed foods and a questioning of this diet.
  • Hippocrates health centres use exclusively raw foods to heal disease.
  • Gerson (90) developed a therapy based on deficiency of oxidising enzymes and a lower than normal potassium to sodium ratio occurring in cancer patients. He used coffee enemas and iodine and potassium salts with 13 glasses of juice and mainly raw food meals to cure 50% of his patients.
  • Pritiken’s diet gave results of 50% cures to diabetes and 69% to angina. Seignalet (92) found rawfoods cured 19 of 46 rheumatoid arthritis patients based on enterocyte enzymes being non-adapted for modern food in most patients. Diehl (94) showed studies where atherosclerosis was reversible by dietary changes.
  • Murray concludes the philosophy that biotechnology will provide a cure is the reason why raw foods is being ignored in the mainstream, however independent researchers are beginning to question the old paradigm and there is grounds that medical attitudes are slowly changing to consider diet and health.




Note: references to the scientific papers quoted are contained in Murray’s book bibliography